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ISSN 2611-8858

Topics

Corruption

Judicial Measurement of Corruption: the Criminal Law Effectiveness Third Level

The paper focuses on corruption cases in Italy between 2004 and 2017 where a final guilty verdict was issued, studying their time and space trends. The aim is to assess the so-called criminal law effectiveness third level with respect to the criminal provisions at issue, viz. how the law enforcement agencies work, pointing out weak points, if any. This paper also tries to advance – in light of the empirical analysis – some reflections on effectiveness and fitness of the current legislation, taking into account the last three reforms not only on the actus reus, but also – and mostly – on the sanctioning level.

Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Different Perspectives on Fighting Corruption

Report held at Northeastern University in Boston on 23rd January 2020

Corruption, Freedom of Speech within Campaign Finance Law in the United States

Within the US legal system, freedom of speech and corruption show an interesting point of tangency in the area of the campaign finance regulation. The crucial issue is whether limits imposed on campaign spending represent a restriction on the constitutionally protected political speech, and, thus, whether they violate the US Constitution. This article surveys the most significant US Supreme Court case law about the interactions between freedom of speech and corruption. In particular, analyzing the equation given by the Supreme Court between money spending for political purposes and political speech, this essay criticizes the use of the strong shield of the First Amendment for protecting actions that – as explained – may fall (far) outside the freedom of speech zone

Big Data Analytics and Anti-corruption Compliance. Critical Issues of Current Practice and Future Scenarios

This paper addresses the issue of implementation of big data analytics techniques in public and private anti-corruption compliance, highlighting how this new practice can transform the current features of crime-risk prevention activities. The work is aimed at showing the potential benefits and risks related to the adoption of the said digital tools, as well as hypothetical future scenarios, including the perspective of regulating the use of such compliance systems also for purposes other than risk management.

Organised Crime and Corruption: from Elective Attraction to Enforcement Convergence

The paper analyses the relationship between organised crime and corruption, from a criminological and legal perspective, both at the domestic and the cross-border level. As to the latter, it is explored the link to the notion of "transnational crime" under Law 146/2006. The analysis is then devoted to the EU and international law as well, whose instruments shaped the domestic legislation in these areas of crime. The empirical mix between criminal organisations (including the Mafia-style ones) and corrupt practices influences criminal law policies, that eventually merged, as demonstrated by the recent Law 3/2019 (so-called "spazzacorrotti"). The said osmosis of preventative and repressive strategies, potentially leading to an oversimplified unification, raises new and deep concerns about the fundamental criminal law safeguards

El decomiso de las ganancias de la corrupción en Italia. En busca de las garantías perdidas

During the last two decades, in Italy the fight against corruption resulted into several kinds of confiscation of crime proceeds, having very different conditions and rules. The overall rationale of the said diversification is based on efficiency and it could jeopardise fundamental safeguards of criminal law as well as the rule of law

Measuring, preventing and counteracting corruption in Italy

This paper aims to investigate corruption as an international phenomenon spread among several Countries around the world, which affects transparency and lawfulness of the Public Administration activities. In particular, lights will be shaded on the shape and the perception of bribery practices in Italy, according to judicial data and perception index. Therefore, the analysis will cover the efficiency of preventative measures, as well as strengths and weaknesses of the current repressive strategies

Il contrasto alla corruzione. Il modello italiano

Text of the speech held by the President of the Italian Anti-corruption Authority on the 13 of September 2018 at the Austral University of Buenos Aires in the international conference "La política criminal frente al fenómeno de la corrupción”.

Mafia e corruzione: tra confische, commissariamenti e interdittive

Vengono dapprima rapidamente esaminati gli strumenti previsti dalle norme vigenti per contrastare i patrimoni di origine illecita e le infiltrazioni mafiose nell’economia; questi strumenti divergono quanto ai presupposti, agli effetti, alla natura, giurisdizionale o amministrativa, ed anche quanto alle garanzie e alle forme di tutela di cui gode il soggetto destinatario delle misure. All’esito di questa ricognizione si rileva che dopo una lunga fase, durata decenni, in cui l’obiettivo del contrasto ai patrimoni illeciti – in particolare quelli mafiosi – è stato innanzi tutto quello di giungere alla confisca e poi quello di contrastare il rischio di infiltrazioni mafiose senza porsi neanche troppo il problema delle conseguenze di certi provvedimenti, si avverte oggi, (nella legislazione, in dottrina e giurisprudenza), una maggiore attenzione all’esigenza di attivare strumenti diversi per quelle aziende che, pur presentando forme di infiltrazione e di condizionamento mafioso, conservino una sostanziale integrità e siano anche intenzionate a rimuovere i presupposti di quel pericolo di infiltrazione e condizionamento. Per evitare una ingiustificata distruzione di ricchezze, e in particolare – ma non solo – la perdita di posti di lavoro, si cercano strumenti che a quelle attività imprenditoriali offrano, se ce ne sono le condizioni, l’opportunità del rientro nel mercato in condizioni di legalità.

Sulle differenze tra i delitti di concussione e di induzione indebita a dare o promettere utilità

Nella sentenza annotata, le Sezioni unite penali della Cassazione affrontano il tema, delicato e controverso, della distinzione tra le condotte di costrizione e di induzione di cui, rispettivamente, agli artt. 317 e 319-quater c.p. I criteri discretivi individuati sono molteplici: su tutti, l’entità della pressione psicologica, la presenza/assenza di una minaccia, lo scopo perseguito dal privato, la presenza/assenza del metus publicae potestatis, la pregnanza del bene minacciato. A volte tali criteri vengono ulteriormente articolati, a volte sembrano operare in sinergia, a volte in modo decisamente alternativo tra loro. Non v’è peraltro dubbio che privilegiarne uno oppure un altro conduca frequentemente a risultati opposti. La Corte, consapevole di ciò, rileva come nei casi controversi debba optarsi per il criterio maggiormente rispondente al caso di specie: una “fuga” dalla nomofilachia che rischia di travolgere non pochi principi fondamentali.