The issue of gender-based violence in recent years has characterized the public debate and the recent period of criminal law reform. The so-called conversion treatments, which we are discussing here, require dealing with the same topic from a different point of view. To what extent therapies aiming at modifying someone’s sexual orientation are to be considerate as legitimate? And which safeguards must a legal system put in place in order to protect rights such as freedom of self- determination, gender identity and the dignity of the individual in relation to such behaviours? The aim of the work is to address those questions, by looking at the experience gained in other legal systems traditionally close to ours, which teach us that, under certain conditions, criminal law must also play a role in the fight against those phenomenons.