Lobbying and policy. Compared constitutional profiles

Lobbying is unquestionably part of the democratic systems. In order to avoid that it can turn into a misconduct threatening the public interest, several rules are in place. The provisions adopted by the main democratic systems worldwide follow three different models, depending on the transparency of the relationship between lobbyists and policy makers as well as the degree of involvement of the former in the policymaking. In such a framework, the Italian case is abnormal and it poses several matters also in terms of quality of the rules and, more generally, in terms of quality of the democracy