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ISSN 2611-8858

Topics

Organized Crime

Organised Crime and Corruption: from Elective Attraction to Enforcement Convergence

The paper analyses the relationship between organised crime and corruption, from a criminological and legal perspective, both at the domestic and the cross-border level. As to the latter, it is explored the link to the notion of "transnational crime" under Law 146/2006. The analysis is then devoted to the EU and international law as well, whose instruments shaped the domestic legislation in these areas of crime. The empirical mix between criminal organisations (including the Mafia-style ones) and corrupt practices influences criminal law policies, that eventually merged, as demonstrated by the recent Law 3/2019 (so-called "spazzacorrotti"). The said osmosis of preventative and repressive strategies, potentially leading to an oversimplified unification, raises new and deep concerns about the fundamental criminal law safeguards

Mafia method across borders

In 2006, a new legislative type of crime was introduced in the Italian criminal justice system: the "transnational" crime, which comprises every feature and effect a criminal behaviour could have in more than one State and connects it with relevant consequences as to the punishment. Nevertheless, said label could refer to legal (and even social) spaces in which the crime presents itself differently than the underlying behavior: indeed, any social agglomeration might mark out, in a different way, an element of a crime. An instance thereof could be found in a specific Italian law, enacted against Mafia (art. 7, d.l. 152/1991), introducing an aggravating factor that could permanently alter the substance of the crime. From this point of view, many systematic questions arise, seriously challenging the abilities of experts in legal interpretation.

Observations in order to the evidences in the different models of forfeiture

The author, after an overview of the different confiscation models in the national legal system, with particular regard to the so called confiscation “per sproporzione”, focuses on the necessary profiles concerning the application of the measure in the different models. The trend emerging is that the legislator tends to release the ascertaining of the confiscation from the application. But a similar trend might have a negative impact on the efficiency of the new punitive system based on confiscation.

The new discipline of the computer sensor between investigative needs and protection of fundamental rights From “scurato” judgment to interception reform

The new face of organised crime has got the traditional systems of investigations into troubles, highlighting investigation inability of judicial authorities to combat effectively drug trade and spread of child sexual abuse material on the internet. Only through computer investigation, investigative bodies are able to seek and ensure the probative data. The new investigation horizon is interception of communications among present (and search) through computer collector. That is a system which permits image and sound collection remotely through forwarding of a malware on a target device. The legislator has been waiting for more than ten years for regulating the use of the new investigative instrument by the introduction of the Legislative Decree December 29 th 2017 n. 216. This collects largely the proposal of “Scurato” judgment and numerous suggestions offered from the doctrine in the last years. The examining Judge is responsible to recover the real control function on the investigative project hypothesized by the prosecutor in order to safeguard the constitutional values involved in the use of the mean.

Illegal Waste Trafficking in the Mediterranean area: Phenomenology and Measures of Contrast

This study focuses on the delicate issue of illegal waste trafficking, in particular in the Mediterranean area, to identify effective tools to prevent and repress the Ecomafia phenomenon. In order to do that, a preliminary analysis of the operating models must be carried out, as well as of the phases through which it develops, of the aims it pursues and of the subjects that take part in it. In this regard, arising from the natural starting point in the Italian body of law, the Article 260, d. lgs. 2006, no. 152, today reproduced by the Article 452 quaterdecies penal code, as combined in some cases with the Articles 416 and 416 bis penal code, the study will then consider the aggravating circumstances “ecomafiosa” and “environmental”, introduced by the Law 22 May 2015, no. 68, in order to contrast the hipotesis of environmental crimes, whenever they interact with criminal associations. The research will address the effectiveness of the current legislation to properly neutralize the entire dynamic since its origine and in its distinct features. In this context, having noted the level of criticality that the regulatory overview presents in dealing with a phenomenon of such magnitude and complexity, and having considered several similarities with the criminal association structure, one wonders about the opportunity to introduce a specific associative hypothesis, to regulate the “association to commit environmental crimes”.

The Concurrence of Mafia-Type Conspiracy and Drug Trafficking Conspiracy: Searching for a Rational Way to Fight the Phenomenon

The essay examines the connections between the crimes provided by arts. 416-bis c.p. and 74 d.p.r. n. 309/90, criticizing the case law of the Italian Supreme Court (Corte di Cassazione) that usually considers these two crimes to be formally concurrent (concorso formale di reati), thus determining an automatic duplication of sanctions in breach of the substantial ne bis in idem principle. In particular, the paper underlines how the application of value-based criteria to solve the issue of the apparent concurrence (concorso apparente) of criminal provisions, rather than logical and structural criteria, would allow to achieve more balanced solutions regarding the level of the penalty to be imposed, which today is completely disproportionate as compared to the concrete disvalue of the conspiracy because of Courts’ attitude and legislative choices.

Mafia e corruzione: tra confische, commissariamenti e interdittive

Vengono dapprima rapidamente esaminati gli strumenti previsti dalle norme vigenti per contrastare i patrimoni di origine illecita e le infiltrazioni mafiose nell’economia; questi strumenti divergono quanto ai presupposti, agli effetti, alla natura, giurisdizionale o amministrativa, ed anche quanto alle garanzie e alle forme di tutela di cui gode il soggetto destinatario delle misure. All’esito di questa ricognizione si rileva che dopo una lunga fase, durata decenni, in cui l’obiettivo del contrasto ai patrimoni illeciti – in particolare quelli mafiosi – è stato innanzi tutto quello di giungere alla confisca e poi quello di contrastare il rischio di infiltrazioni mafiose senza porsi neanche troppo il problema delle conseguenze di certi provvedimenti, si avverte oggi, (nella legislazione, in dottrina e giurisprudenza), una maggiore attenzione all’esigenza di attivare strumenti diversi per quelle aziende che, pur presentando forme di infiltrazione e di condizionamento mafioso, conservino una sostanziale integrità e siano anche intenzionate a rimuovere i presupposti di quel pericolo di infiltrazione e condizionamento. Per evitare una ingiustificata distruzione di ricchezze, e in particolare – ma non solo – la perdita di posti di lavoro, si cercano strumenti che a quelle attività imprenditoriali offrano, se ce ne sono le condizioni, l’opportunità del rientro nel mercato in condizioni di legalità.

L’aggravante ex art. 7 d.l. n. 152 del 13 maggio 1991: una sintesi di “inafferabilità del penalmente rilevante”

L’aggravante ex art. 7 d.l. n. 152 del 13 maggio 1991, convertito in legge n. 203 del 12 luglio 1991, origina dalla necessità di “coprire” anche le più sfuggenti condotte dei “fiancheggiatori” delle organizzazioni mafiose, per cui il legislatore, costretto a trascurare i principi di tassatività e materialità, ha aperto, in tal modo, un varco enorme alla dubbia interpretazione giurisprudenziale, del tutto indifferente alla tipizzazione dell’aggravante in parola al punto da delineare perfino una “responsabilità mafiosa ambientale”, a mezzo di una evidente debolezza probatoria. Col presente contributo si vuole rimarcare come la giurisprudenza ha finito, nel tempo, per utilizzare l’art. 7, l. 203/1991, addirittura come strumento “normativo-processuale” per ricomprendere tutti i comportamenti non inquadrabili nel paradigma criminoso di cui all’art. 416 bis c.p., elevando l’aggravante de qua al rango di norma incriminatrice.