The Criminalization of Victims of Trafficking: the European Court of Human Rights on the "Non-Punishment Clause" and the Positive Obligations of Protection Deriving from Art. 4 ECHR
European Court of Human Right, IV Section, February 16, 2021, V.C.L. a. A.N. v. UK
The Contribution of the ICC to the Characterization of Forced Marriage as an Autonomous Crime Against Humanity: the Conviction of Dominic Ongwen
International Criminal Court, Trial Chamber IX, 4 February 2021, The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen
Illicit Traffics in the Mediterranean Area. Prevention and Repression in National, European and International Law
The text presents the topics of the illicit traffics in the Mediterranean area, which was the subject of the 8th Training Course "Giuliano Vassalli" for PhD Candidates, held in Noto in 2017. The remarks are complemented by references to the following contributions of the participants selected for the pubblication.
Italian Criminal Legislation as a Model for Implementing the Supranational and International Regulation for Anti-Smuggling and Anti-Trafficking
This work aims at reconstructing the Italian Criminal Legislation against the phenomenon of international trafficking in people (considered in its two components, trafficking of human beings and smuggling of migrants), in order to verify the effectiveness of the protection provided and the congruence with respect to international and supranational constraints. All this in the awareness that the fight against trafficking requires integrated policies and the involvement of the international community.
The aim of the present work is to question the hypothetical margins of criminal relevance of assistance behaviors provided by the rescue operators at sea (especially if belonging to N.G.O.s) in favor of the migrants intercepted in the Mediterranean Sea and transferred to the Italian shores. This analysis, which will necessarily presuppose the recognition of the numerous national and international obligations in term of search and rescue at sea, will move from the examination of the relations between the ordinary and lawful rescue operations and the crime of facilitating illegal immigration; then it will consider the possibility − presented by recent judicial cases, starting from the criminal proceedings that saw the seizure of the Iuventa ship, belonging to the N.G.O. Jugend Rettet − that some conducts carried out by the rescuers, further and different from those strictly related to the rescue activities, may be concretely considered suitable to support their responsibility under Article 12 of Italian t.u. imm.
Human traffickers frequently take advantage of operative protocols, that make them unpunishable pursuant the Italian Criminal Law, because, according to Art. 6 of the Italian Penal Code and International Convention on the High Sea, jurisdictional powers cannot be exercised when the conduct is committed on the High Sea. So, illustrating the territorial limitations of the efficacy of Criminal Law, the research focuses on the hermeneutical solution given by the Court of Cassation that, apparently with the intent of pursuing a more effectivity of the Criminal response, recurred to the controversial category of the indirect offender in order to sanction smuggling conducts that enjoy the rescue intervention of the Italian authorities to reach their criminal aims. In turn, in order to better identify the Italian jurisdiction in the crime of Art. 12 T.U. imm. I propose to correctly apply the concorso di persone (art. 110 c.p.) and the reato eventualmente permanente. The difficulties of a dogmatic framing, together with the trend towards a universalistic validity of the jurisdictional powers when human rights are involved, may recommend an interpretation of Art. 7 of the Italian Penal Code to cover a wider protection of human rights, according to interpretive solutions of § 6 of the German Penal Code.
L’Autore si propone di evidenziare, all’esito di un percorso esegetico della fattispecie alternativo a quello finora consolidato in dottrina, come il deficit di efficacia dell’art. 603-bis c.p. sia da imputare, ancor prima che a difetti di tecnica legislativa, all’inadeguatezza dello strumentario repressivo penale ad affrontare il fenomeno del caporalato. Invero, le principali censure mosse alla fattispecie – l’inappropriata individuazione del soggetto attivo, l’irragionevole disparità di tutela delle vittime determinata dal combinato disposto con l’art. 22 t.u. imm., nonché la mancata previsione di conseguenze sanzionatorie efficaci sul piano dell’ablazione patrimoniale – potrebbero essere persino superabili in via interpretativa o, comunque, ridimensionate alla luce di un’attenta considerazione del fenomeno sottostante. Semmai, la vera aporia, come rivela la posizione della questione ‘preliminare’ della meritevolezza di pena delle condotte di intermediazione, è costituita dall’affidare ad una fattispecie assiologicamente ascrivibile al ‘nucleo duro’ del diritto penale, anziché a politiche pubbliche in campo economico e sociale, il ‘governo’ d’un vero e proprio “sistema di produzione”.